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Table 1 Description of GHG reduction scenarios, three implementation levels, and high and low substitution benefits, as well as a description of the baseline

From: Climate change mitigation in British Columbia’s forest sector: GHG reductions, costs, and environmental impacts

Forest management and wood use scenarios
Scenario Description Implementation levels Substitution benefits
Harvest less Harvest area is reduced, relative to the baseline. Harvest areas are randomly selected and removed from the harvest schedule. Wildfire risk of conserved stands is considered ex-post 10% harvest reduction
Low: 2%
High: 20%
Solid wood product benefits are based on the change in sawnwood and panels, relative to the baseline levels. High benefits assumed that the incremental wood is used in construction, low benefits assumed that wood is used in a wide range of products
Restricted harvest Harvest area of old stands is reduced, relative to the baseline. Old is defined by natural disturbance type time interval. Wildfire risk of conserved stands is considered ex-post Reduced harvest of old stands, where the old age threshold varies between 150 and 250 years, depending on the region
Low: 175 to 300 years
High: 125 to 200 years
As above
Higher recovery Increase the use of harvested stemwood for wood products, without changing the harvest area 5% increase from the Baseline level of 85% stemwood C in merchantable-sized trees is used for products (in all but four regions)
Low: 3% increase
High: 8% increase
As above
Residues for bioenergy Collect a portion of harvest residues (including branches, small trees, tops, and stemwood from unused merchantable-sized trees and snags), stop slashpile burning, and generate bioenergy (heat, and/or power) 25% of harvest residues are collected for bioenergy
Low: 20%
High: 30%
Bioenergy benefits were based on substitution of fossil fuel burning with high benefits for contemporary fossil fuel use, and low benefits for lower fossil fuel use in the future
Higher recovery and residues for bioenergy Combination of two scenarios, where (1) the use of harvested stemwood for products is increased and (2) a portion of harvest residues is collected for bioenergy and slashpile burning is stopped 5% increase in stemwood utilization and 25% of harvest residues collected
Low: 3% increase in utilization, 20% of residues collected
High: 8% increase in utilization, 30% of residues collected
As above for solid wood products
Longer-lived wood products This wood use scenario can be combined with all forest management scenarios listed above. Wood products are shifted immediately from pulp and paper towards longer-lived sawnwood and panels. Mill residues are unchanged Wood products are 55% sawnwood, 22% panels, and 21% pulp and paper
Low: 53%, 20%, 24% (respectively)
High: 56%, 23% and 18% (respectively)
As above for solid wood products
Baseline description
The baseline modeled carbon stocks and GHG emissions and removals at 1-ha resolution from 1990 to 2070 for 62.9 Mha of public forests in British Columbia. Future harvest and wildfires were projected, with no interaction between wildfires and conserved stands. Projections of harvesting were based on contemporary practices of harvest utilization, slashpile burning of harvest residuals, and bioenergy production from mill residuals. Wood product commodities (sawnwood, panels, pulp and paper, and other industrial roundwood) were based on contemporary levels with an assumed downward trend in pulp and paper production. Each commodity had an assumed half-life, after which commodities were sent to landfills, incinerated or used for energy