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Table 5 Summary of HWP reporting in GHG inventories 1990–2016 for each Annex I country

From: Assessing the contribution of harvested wood products under greenhouse gas estimation: accounting under the Paris Agreement and the potential for double-counting among the choice of approaches

CountriesHWP approachesHWP C stock change trendHWP_CSC/(FL_CSC + HWP_CSC)Net CO2 from HWP/national total GHG emissions (excl./incl. LULUCF)Hypothesis CO2 credit of HWP (top 1/3—average)/national total net GHG emissionsa
AustraliaSCContinuous C gains28.6%− 1.3%/− 1.1%− 0.2%
AustriaPContinuous C gains50.7%− 3.1%/− 3.6%− 1.7%
BelgiumP(KP)Total C loss− 11.9%0.2%/0.2%− 0.1%
BulgariaP(KP)Total C loss− 1.7%0.3%/0.4%− 0.6%
BelarusNE0%0%0%
CanadaSTotal C gain0.1%0.0%/0.0%0.0%
SwitzerlandP(KP)Continuous C gains− 36.0%− 0.9%/−0.9%− 0.5%
CyprusPTotal C loss41.5%0.2%/0.2%− 0.2%
CzechiaSCAD(KP)Total C gain31.1%− 0.7%/− 0.7%− 0.6%
GermanyPTotal C gain16.6%− 0.5%/−0.5%− 0.5%
DenmarkPTotal C gain− 26.9%0.0%/0.0%− 0.2%
SpainPContinuous C gains5.9%−0.6%/− 0.6%− 0.4%
EstoniaP(KP)Total C gain29.3%− 3.1%/− 3.6%− 2.0%
FinlandPTotal C gain12.4%− 5.1%/− 7.7%− 4.7%
FrancePContinuous C gains6.1%− 0.8%/− 0.8%− 0.3%
UKPContinuous C gains12.2%− 0.3%/− 0.3%− 0.1%
GreecePContinuous C gains10.5%− 0.2%/− 0.2%− 0.2%
CroatiaSCAD(KP)Total C gain3.1%− 0.8%/1.0%− 1.3%
HungaryPTotal C loss− 0.6%0.0%/0.0%− 0.2%
IrelandPContinuous C gains26.3%− 1.3%/1.2%− 0.4%
IcelandSCAD(KP)Total C loss− 0.1%0.0%/0.0%0.0%
ItaliaP(KP)Total C gain1.4%− 0.1%/0.1%− 0.1%
JapanP(KP)Total C loss− 0.7%0.0%/0.1%− 0.1%
KazakhstanIO0%0%0%
LichtensteinP(KP)Total C gain13.4%− 0.3%/− 0.3%− 0.5%
LithuaniaPContinuous C gains13.5%− 4.7%/− 6.6%− 2.0%
LuxemburgIO(KP)0%0%0%
LatviaP(KP)Total C gain33.8%− 12.9%/− 49.3%− 12.4%
MonacoNO
MaltaNE0%0%0%
NetherlandP(KP)Total C loss− 3.6%0.0%/0.0%0.0%
NorwayPTotal C gain2.2%− 0.6%/− 0.9%− 1.5%
New ZealandPContinuous C gains20.4%− 6.9%/− 11.2%− 3.6%
PolandP(KP)Continuous C gains8.7%− 0.6%/− 0.7%− 0.3%
PortugalPTotal C gain7.9%− 1.1%/− 1.1%− 0.6%
RomaniaPTotal C gain9.3%− 1.7%/− 2.1%− 2.2%
RussiaPTotal C loss− 0.3%0.1%/0.1%− 0.2%
SlovakiaSCAD (KP)Total C gain16.3%− 1.6%/− 2.0%− 1.8%
SloveniaPTotal C gain1.3%− 0.4%/− 0.6%− 0.7%
SwedenPContinuous C gains21.8%− 11.0%/− 30.6%− 7.8%
TurkeyPContinuous C gains11.9%− 1.1%/− 1.2%− 1.1%
UkrainePTotal C loss− 2.4%0.3%/0.3%− 0.3%
United States of AmericaPContinuous C gains23.6%− 1.4%/− 1.6%− 0.4%
TotalC gains9.2%− 0.9%/− 1.0%− 0.4%
  1. IO instantaneous oxidation, SC stock-change, P production, SCAD stock change approach for HWP of domestic origin, S simple-decay, KP applying the LULUCF accounting rule for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, NE not estimated, NO not occurring
  2. aDifference between a hypothetical baseline based on the average of annual carbon stock changes for the period from 1990 to 2016 and the largest carbon gains within the top one-third for the same period