Contribution of LULUCF to the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) in 2030 of Brazil, Indonesia, Russia and the EU, based on the analysis of Grassi et al.  expressed in % of the total GHG emissions reduction (main graph) and in GtCO2/year (small graph). The original estimate by Grassi et al.  for the EU (zero) is updated here to consider the recent EU LULUCF legislation  that caps the contribution from LULUCF toward the EU target at 280 MtCO2e for the 10-years period 2021–2030: if this value is annualized (i.e., 28 MtCO2e/year), it corresponds to slightly more than 1% of the EU 2030 emission reduction target (which is about 2250 Mt CO2e/year, i.e. from about 5650 Mt CO2e/year in 1990 to about 3400 Mt CO2e/year in 2030). More information on the NDCs is in Additional file 1: Table S1. For further details, see Fig. 4b, supplementary section 2 and supplementary Table 5 in Grassi et al.