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Table 4 Perturbation tests for January 2007

From: Assessing Lagrangian inverse modelling of urban anthropogenic CO2 fluxes using in situ aircraft and ground-based measurements in the Tokyo area

Experiment description Kanto urban emissions Mt/month (all period average) Relative difference with respect to reference
Prior (EDGAR) 34 − 26%
Reference inversion 46 0%
Changes in observations amount and location
 No CONTRAIL 40 − 13%
 Including night observations 41 − 11%
Perturbations in transport modelling
 Space shift 1 grid cell [0 1] 56 21%
 Space shift 2 grid cells [0 2] 61 32%
 Time shift 1 h [1 0] 52 13%
 Time shift 2 h [2 0] 54 17%
 WRF meteorology 57 23%
Different background representations
 Mauna Loa (ML) 71 54%
 ML + 2 ppm 58 26%
 ML − 2 ppm 84 82%
 AGCM-BDE (i.e. with backward diffusive ensembles) 53 15%
 AGCM-BDE + 2 ppm 40 − 13%
 AGCM-BDE − 2 ppm 67 45%
Inventory
 2× EDGAR 49 7%
 3× EDGAR 50 9%
 CDIAC 33 (from prior 11) − 28% (+ 300% from prior)
 EDGAR + VISIT 47 2%
 EDGAR + CASA 47 2%
  1. The changes are in the observations amount and location, perturbations in transport modelling, different background representations and inventory perturbations. The baseline inversions used as control correspond to all observations night time excluded, ECMWF winds with no SRR shift, observations-derived background and EDGAR inventory