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Table 4 Soil and air conditions under the three grazing management systems during the study period

From: Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya

  Grazing system Season
Dry Wet
Air temperature (°C) GDE 28.55 ± 0.35 25.31 ± 0.66
  CGE 28.48 ± 0.36 25.31 ± 0.33
  OGR 27.97 ± 0.42 25.20 ± 0.77
Soil temperature (°C) GDE 38.13 ± 0.68a 31.52 ± 0.90
  CGE 37.06 ± 0.87a 31.79 ± 0.64
  OGR 35.39 ± 0.90b 31.67 ± 1.42
Soil moisture (% v/v) GDE 11.77 ± 1.11a 20.89 ± 0.64a
  CGE 9.78 ± 0.99ab 19.55 ± 0.56a
  OGR 7.16 ± 1.12b 16.76 ± 0.87b
Water filled pore space (%) GDE 25.87 ± 2.45a 46.01 ± 1.43a
  CGE 21.44 ± 2.19ab 43.07 ± 1.26ab
  OGR 16.81 ± 2.73b 38.39 ± 2.00b
  1. Values are seasonal means ± SE (n = 9). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among grazing systems for each parameter (P < 0.05)
  2. OGR open grazing rangeland, GDE grazing dominated enclosure, CGE contractual grazing enclosure