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Table 4 Estimated cumulative carbon mass and southern Ontario wetland carbon stocks

From: Potential carbon loss associated with post-settlement wetland conversion in southern Ontario, Canada

  Estimated cumulative carbon massa (kg C m−2), mean [SD] Areal extent estimate (km2) Carbon stock (Tg C), estimate [SD]c
Pre-settlement wetlandsb Current wetlands Pre-settlement wetlands Current wetlands
Tree swampd   10,111 8342 1156 [494] 954 [408]
 Coniferous 180 [104]     
 Mixed 101 [58]     
 Deciduous 94 [76]     
Shrub swamp 136 [116] 2192 1167 298 [254] 159 [135]
Fen 160 [76] 55 53 9 [4] 8 [4]
Bog 173 [81] 109 89 19 [9] 15 [7]
Marsh 142 [89] 12,509 1381 1776 [1118] 196 [123]
Total   24,975 11,032 3258 [1249] 1332 [447]
(All)e 137 [98]    3422 [2448] 1511 [1081]
  1. a Product of the estimated average peat depth (Table 2) and the organic carbon density (Table 3). See Additional file 1: Appendix S1 for more details
  2. b Some values are marginally smaller than the pre-settlement totals shown in Table 1, as natural area with shallow substrates (i.e., ‘rocky’—beach, cliff, alvar) have been subtracted. See Additional file 1: Appendix S1 for a detailed procedure
  3. c Product of the cumulative carbon mass and the wetland extent. Estimated uncertainties (SD) reflect only the carbon density estimates; the carbon stock values have greater uncertainties from the errors of wetland mapping which are not accounted for here (Additional file 1: Appendix S1)
  4. d Tree swamp extent was proportioned based on the current forest cover ratio (coniferous:mixed:deciduous = 22:25:54) of the study area, assuming a similar distribution of tree species in forests and forested wetlands
  5. e From the cumulative carbon mass estimate from all sites and samples (the bottom rows of Tables 2 and 3). The carbon stocks in the same row are derived from this average carbon mass, without classifying by wetland types