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Table 2 Cattle and swine manure management emissions input factors used for this study, as compared with those used/published by IPCC

From: Revised methane emissions factors and spatially distributed annual carbon fluxes for global livestock

Regione Average animal body mass (kg) Volatile solids (kg year−1) Bo (m3 CH4/kg VS) MCF for dry systemsf MCF liquid
IPCC 2006d This study IPCC 2006d This study IPCC 2006d This study IPCC 2006d This study IPCC 2006d This study
Dairy cattle
 US and Canada 600 680e 1971 2703 [12, 39] 0.24 0.24 [12] 1.2 1 [12, 70] 20.0 29.5 [12]
 W. Europe 600 624e 1862 1632 [70] 0.24 0.23 [70] 1.5 3.1 [70] 20.0 26 [70]
 E. Eur.–Ctrl. Asia 550 572e 1643 1705 [70] 0.24 0.24 [70] 1.7 1.8 [70] 17.0 NA
 Oceania 500 565e 1278 1033 [70] 0.24 0.24 [70] 1.4 1.4 [70] 50.0 35.0 [70]
 Latin America 400 458e 1059 1507h 0.13 0.13g 0.9 0.9g 65.0 65.0g
 E.–S.E. Asia 350 500e 1022 1602h 0.13 0.13g 1.7 2.0 [9] 19.0 20.0 [9]
 Africa 275 355e 694 1071h 0.13 0.13g 1.9 1.9g 46.0 NA
 S. Asia 275 281e 949 975h 0.13 0.13g 5.6 5.6g 55.0 55.0g
Meat/other cattle
 US and Canada 389 420 [70] 876 1059 [70] 0.19 0.20 [12, 39]a 1.0 1.4 [12, 39] 20.0 34.0 [12, 39]
 W. Europe 420 401 [70] 949 726 [70] 0.18 0.19 [70] 1.5 4.5 [70] 20.0 29.0 [70]
 E. Eur.–Ctrl. Asia 391 351 [70] 986 923 [70] 0.17 0.17 [70] 1.6 1.7 [70] 17.0 20.0 [70]
 Oceania 330 376 [70] 1095 965 [70] 0.17 0.17 [70] 1.5 1.5 [70] NA NA
 Latin America 305 323 [80, 81] 913 779h 0.10 0.10g 1.5 1.5g NA NA
 E.–S.E. Asia 319 259 [59] 840 546h 0.10 0.10g 1.2 1.2g NA NA
 Africa 173 173g 548 548g 0.10 0.10g 1.7 1.7g NA NA
 S. Asia 110 208 [78] 511 676h 0.10 0.10g 5.9 5.9g 55.0 55.0g
Swine
 US and Canada 61 60 [70] 99 106 [70] 0.48 0.48 [70] 1.5 1.5 [12, 70] 20.0 30.7 [12, 70]
 W. Europe 50 76 [70] 110 113 [70] 0.45 0.41 [70] 1.8 4.4 [70] 20.0 26.5 [70]
 E. Eur.–Ctrl. Asia 50 55 [70] 110 168 [70] 0.45 0.45 [70] 2.3 2.0 [70] 17.0 20.0 [70]
 Oceania 45 61 [70] 102 113 [70] 0.45 0.45 [70] 1.4 1.0 [70] 65.0 65.0 [70]
 Latin America 28 60 [82] 110 106 [82] 0.29 0.48 [82] 1.5 1.5 [82] 60.0 60.0 [82]
 E.–S.E. Asia 28 60 [62, 83] 110 110g 0.29 0.29g 1.0 1.0g 19.0 19.0g
 Africa 28 28g 110 110g 0.29 0.29g 1.7 1.7g 60.0 60.0g
 S. Asia 28 28g 110 110g 0.29 0.29g 3.0 3.0g 55.0 55.0g
  1. NA not applicable
  2. aBo for US meat/other cattle was calculated as the weighted average of on-feed and not-on-feed live-animal biomass. We estimated that 17.2% of US meat/other cattle live animal mass is on-feed in 2012, based on reported body masses and populations [39]. Values of Bo for these populations was taken from [12]
  3. bCH4 emissions from the estimated 20% of manure that is burned for fuel in this region were considered similar to emissions from manure treated in anaerobic digestors for lack of specific information; CH4 and/or volatile solids assumed to be oxidized to CO2 when burned
  4. cTable A-206 in [12] states “because manure from beef feedlots…may be managed for long periods of time in multiple systems (i.e. both drylot and runoff collection pond), the percent of manure that generates emissions is greater than 100%.”
  5. dCalculated using information in supplemental tables in Chapter 10 of IPCC 2006 [4]
  6. eSee Table 1 for the country/countries on which regional values are based, and for dairy cattle weight sources
  7. fDry systems include dry lot, pasture/range, solid, daily spread, burned, and pit storage <1 month
  8. gUnchanged from information in supplemental tables in Chapter 10 of IPCC 2006 [4] due to lack of newer information
  9. hCalculated using the updated information presented here in Eq. 10.24 in Chapter 10 of IPCC 2006 [4]
Region MCF lagoon MCF digester/other % of manure managed in dry systems a % of manure managed in liquid and deep pit systems % of manure managed in lagoon systems % of manure managed in digesters/other
IPCC 2006d This study This study IPCC 2006d This study IPCC 2006d This study IPCC 2006d This study IPCC 2006d This study
Dairy cattle
 US and Canada 70.0 71 [12, 39] NA 58 42 [12, 39] 30 24.3 [12, 39] 15 33.6 [12, 39] 0 0 [12]
 W. Europe 70.0 42 [70] 18.0 [70] 64 54 [70] 36 41 [70] 0 0 [70] 0 5 [70]
 E. Eur.–Ctrl. Asia 66.0 NA NA 83 100 [70] 18 0 [70] 0 0 [70] 0 0 [70]
 Oceania 78.0 90.0 [70] NA 84 95 [70] 1 0 [70] 16 5 [70] 0 0 [70]
 Latin America 78.0 NA NA 99 99 [73] 1 1 [73] 0 0 [73] 0 0 [73]
 E.–S.E. Asia 68.0 NA 10.0d 56 66 [59] 38 25 [9] 4 0 [59] 2 9 [59]
 Africa 79.0 NA NA 100 100g 0 0g 0 0g 0 0g
 S. Asia 79.0 NA 10.0d 99 80 [84] 1 0 [84] 0 0 [84] 1 20 [84]b
Meat/other cattle
 US and Canada NA NA NA 100 100 [12, 39] 0 1 [12, 39]c 0 0 [12, 39] 0 0 [12, 39]
 W. Europe NA NA NA 75 72 [70] 25 26 [70] 0 0 [70] 0 3 [70]
 E. Eur.–Ctrl. Asia NA NA NA 78 86 [70] 23 14 [70] 0 0 [70] 0 0 [70]
 Oceania NA NA NA 100 100 [70] 0 0 [70] 0 0 [70] 0 0 [70]
 Latin America NA NA NA 100 100g 0 0g 0 0g 0 0g
 E.–S.E. Asia NA NA NA 100 98 [59] 0 0 [59] 0 0 [59] 0 2 [59]
 Africa NA NA NA 100 100g 0 0g 0 0g 0 0g
 S. Asia NA NA NA 99 99g 1 1g 0 0g 0 0g
Swine
 US and Canada 70.0 72.2 [12, 39] NA 8 6 [12, 39] 59 58 [12, 39] 33 36 [12, 39] 0 0 [12]
 W. Europe 70.0 41.7 [70] 16.5 22 13 [70] 70 58 [70] 9 3 [70] 0 26 [70]
 E. Eur.–Ctrl. Asia 66.0 NA NA 72 37 [70] 25 63 [70] 3 0 [70] 0 0 [70]
 Oceania 78.0 90.0 [70] 10.0 46 23 [70] 0 0 [70] 54 76 [70] 0 1 [70]
 Latin America 79.0 79.0 [82] NA 93 30 [82] 8 0 [82] 0 70 [82] 0 0 [82]
 E.–S.E. Asia 68.0 68.0g 10.0 54 28 [63, 85,86,87] 40 55 [63, 85,86,87] 0 0g 7 18 [63, 85,86,87]
 Africa 79.0 NA NA 94 94g 6 6g 0 0g 0 0g
 S. Asia 79.0 NA NA 69 69g 22 22g 9 9g 0 0g
  1. NA not applicable
  2. aBo for US meat/other cattle was calculated as the weighted average of on-feed and not-on-feed live-animal biomass. We estimated that 17.2% of US meat/other cattle live animal mass is on-feed in 2012, based on reported body masses and populations [39]. Values of Bo for these populations was taken from [12]
  3. bCH4 emissions from the estimated 20% of manure that is burned for fuel in this region were considered similar to emissions from manure treated in anaerobic digestors for lack of specific information; CH4 and/or volatile solids assumed to be oxidized to CO2 when burned
  4. cTable A-206 in [12] states “because manure from beef feedlots…may be managed for long periods of time in multiple systems (i.e. both drylot and runoff collection pond), the percent of manure that generates emissions is greater than 100%.”
  5. dCalculated using information in supplemental tables in Chapter 10 of IPCC 2006 [4]
  6. eSee Table 1 for the country/countries on which regional values are based, and for dairy cattle weight sources
  7. fDry systems include dry lot, pasture/range, solid, daily spread, burned, and pit storage <1 month
  8. gUnchanged from information in supplemental tables in Chapter 10 of IPCC 2006 [4] due to lack of newer information
  9. hCalculated using the updated information presented here in Eq. 10.24 in Chapter 10 of IPCC 2006 [4]