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Table 1 Default values for net caloric value, effective CO2 emission factors (Source: IPCC 2006), and life cycle CO2 emissions (Source:

From: Harvested wood products and REDD+: looking beyond the forest border

Energy source Net caloric value (TJ/Gg) Effective CO2 emissions (kg/MWh) Life cycle CO2 emissions (including production) (kg/MWh)
Lignite 11.9 364 414
Residual fuel oil 40.4 279 314
Natural gas 48.0 202 227
Wood/wood waste 15.6 403 403a
  1. aAssuming utilization for subsistence with only manual interventions