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Table 1 Relative difficulty of tackling different forms of degradation

From: Dealing with locally-driven degradation: A quick start option under REDD+

Degradation due to: Most common in Measures available to combat Actors involved Opportunity costs to actors of reducing degradation Likelihood of leakage Likely time horizon for implementation
Industrial and commercial selective logging Humid tropical forest Enforcement of existing codes;
Introduction of stricter codes;
Sector wide agreements on SFM practices with industry;
Real time monitoring of logging and rapid response facility;
Creation of indigenous peoples' reserves, with leakage safeguards
Commercial timber concerns, both legal and illegal; in some cases, corrupt or complicit officials High High Long term; political opposition may be strong
Community over-exploitation for subsistence and local market Dry (savanna) forest, high altitude temperate forests CFM programmes, PES programmes Communities, facilitating NGOs Low; in many cases CFM increases the supply of subsistence products Low, since productivity increases may make up for lost production Short to medium: greatest barrier may establishment of tenure and rights, but is acceptable politically in most countries at least in low value forests
Manmade fires All forests Obligatory fire controls in SFM and CFM agreements;
Real time monitoring and rapid response facilities
Communities, logging companies, other forest managers Medium Low Long term; not least because the problem of factoring out natural fire from manmade is seriously difficult methodologically.