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Table 2 Options for estimating activity data and emission factors for historical degradation on the national level beyond the use of default data (Tier 1).

From: Options for monitoring and estimating historical carbon emissions from forest degradation in the context of REDD+

Activity and driver of forest degradation Suitable and available data sources for activity data (on national level) Suitable and available data sources for emission factors (on national level)
Extraction of forest products for subsistence and local markets, such as fuelwood and charcoal • Limited historical data • Information from local scale studies or national proxies (i.e. population growth and wood demand), if available • Only long-term cumulative changes may be observed from historical satellite data • Limited historical data • Information from local scale studies, community-based monitoring or permanent sample plots, if available • Emission factors can be measured at present time and applied consistently for historical periods with suitable activity data
Industrial/commercial extraction of forest products such as selective logging • Historical satellite data (Landsat time series) analysed with concession areas • Direct approach should be explored for recent years (i.e. since year circa-2000, depending on national coverage) and indirect approach for longer periods (back to 1990) • National forest inventories and harvest estimates from commercial forestry (i.e. company records of wood volume extracted in selective logging activities in the past), if available • Emission factors can be measured today and can be applied consistently for historical periods with suitable activity data
Other disturbances such as (uncontrolled) wildfires • Historical satellite-based fire data records (since 2000) to be analysed with Landsat-type data • Emission factors can be measured today and can be applied consistently for historical periods with suitable activity data