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Table 1 The mean CO2 emission rates (mg C m-2h-1 and STD in square brackets) of the soils during different periods of freezing-thawing cycles

From: Influence of freeze-thaw events on carbon dioxide emission from soils at different moisture and land use

Cycle Period Variants of soils
   FDS FWS ADS AWS
First cycle Before freezing 35.1 [0.7] 43.8 [0.5] 14.6 [0.8] 7.4 [0.6]
  Soil freezing 12.3 [4.1] 14.1 [5.8] 2.7 [2.5] 4.6 [1.9]
  Frozen soils 4.5 [1.5] 3.7 [1.9] 0.8 [0.4] 1.1 [0.5]
  Soil thawing 24.6 [12.7] 27.8 [11.6] 10.1 [7.3] 2.6 [1.3]
  After thawing 54.7 [8.3] 58.3 [10.1] 25.1 [2.0] 11.4 [0.9]
Second cycle Before freezing 43.3 [1.6] 55.1 [2.2] 19.6 [2.0] 10.2 [1.2]
  Soil freezing 11.1 [5.6] 15.9 [6.6] 3.9 [2.1] 6.8 [1.2]
  Frozen soils 2.7 [0.8] 2.5 [1.8] 0.8 [0.3] 1.5 [1.0]
  Soil thawing 15.5 [5.9] 15.2 [7.9] 8.4 [5.7] 1.4 [0.5]
  After thawing 41.0 [6.8] 42.6 [9.5] 19.0 [2.1] 8.8 [6.1]