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Table 1 City Level Estimates of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions 1990 – 2000: Controlling for ISO 14001 and ICLEI (Fixed Effects Panel)

From: The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity

Variable Model 1 Model 2
Population .590 (.538)  
Population Density -.182 (.474)  
Income 18.539 *** (4.230) 16.947 ** (3.570)
Income Squared -1.315 *** (.302) -1.201 *** (.253)
CO2 Per Unit Value of Manufactured Shipments .868 *** (.043) .869 *** (.043)
ISO 14001 -.011 (.042)  
ICLEI -.147 * (.080) -.139 * (.075)
Constant -58.945 *** (17.619) -46.643 *** (12.620)
R2 (within) .807 .805
   (overall) .471 .235
N observations (groups) 256 (128) 256 (128)
  1. * p < .10 ** p < .05 *** p < .01